This report provides an overview of the different types of surveillance strategies that make up a well-functioning public health system and describes how public health law can establish and maintain these systems. This report is a chapter within the larger report on Advancing the right to health: the vital role of law.
This report focuses on the analysis and interpretation of data collected by the WHO on the surveillance of nine infectious epidemic-prone diseases, the strengths and weaknesses of the data, and how the data can be used and interpreted. The report also details common surveillance methods and the clinical features and other characteristics of the diseases that are important for surveillance.
This guide can assist countries in formulating and implementing monitoring and evaluation strategies for communicable diseases surveillance and response systems. It comprises an overview of key concepts for monitoring and evaluation, the target components of the surveillance and response system, practical steps in implementing monitoring and evaluation and the identification of relevant indicators, and a list of indicators for adaptation at the country level.
This webpage provides information (with links to relevant tools and resources) related to emergency preparedness and response systems. The website guides users through key topics including alert and response operations, disease outbreaks, biorisk reduction. Additionally, it provides users with information on current and past disease outbreaks, with links to relevant outbreak communication guidelines and best practices.
This document provides an overarching framework to standardize the development of WHO guidelines in the context of public health emergencies. The framework includes a development pathway (i.e. methods and procedures) and a toolkit to enable transparent and efficient processes.
This tool can help countries assess their capacity to detect and rapidly respond to public health threats, facilitate a transparent multi-partner response to identifying the most urgent health needs in the health security system, and prioritize opportunities for preparedness, response, and action. It is intended to be used through a joint external evaluation process to measure country-specific status and progress in achieving the targets of effective surveillance and response.
The purpose of this manual is to collate WHO recommended standards for the surveillance of communicable diseases to serve as a point of reference for effective communicable disease surveillance. It includes key elements and contact information for all communicable diseases/syndromes associated with current WHO control programmes and an overview of the methods for coordinating a national plan for communicable disease surveillance.
The IHR is a set of global regulations for the control of the international spread of disease set forth by the World Health Organization. The IHR requires countries to meet a number of “core capacity requirements” for surveillance response at local, intermediate, and national levels. Users can directly access the core capacity requirements for surveillance and response at each level in Annex 1.A of the IHR.
This chapter reviews the various approaches which have been used to set priorities for health research (at the national and international level) and details the rationale for the different methods used to design the conceptual framework for the priority medicines project.
The objective of the original Priority Medicines Report (2004) was to prepare a public-health based medicines development agenda to advance the development of diagnostics and medicines for certain disease areas. The latest report identifies several existing and new gaps in pharmaceutical development and proposes suggestions for policy and research agendas to close these gaps.
“This chapter aims to elaborate on a participatory, inclusive health sector situation analysis methodology to address that simple but very basic need of obtaining a realistic snapshot of the strengths and weaknesses of a country’s health system, as well as a more profound understanding of the reasons behind those strengths and weaknesses, so as to better enable a viable alternative (or successful scale-up).”
“This chapter elaborates various criteria and approaches for priority-setting. It closes with some specifics of the priority- setting exercise in particular contexts such as the decentralized and highly centralized setting, fragile states, and an aid-dependent environment.”
“In this report, the Center for Global Development’s Priority Setting Institutions for Health Working Group has identified core features of priority-setting processes and institutions worldwide, recommending direct substantive support for creating fair and evidence-based national and global health technology assessment systems that will be applicable in any kind of health system.” It is intended to provide organizations with actionable recommendations for building smart and ethical decision-making systems for priority setting.
This series, managed by the University of Washington’s Department of Global and the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, provides a periodic review (9 volumes) of the most cost-effective ways to address the burden of disease in low-resource areas. It includes a total of 21 essential packages with a mix of intersectoral policies and health sector interventions.
This tool was designed to assist countries with the planning and implementation of health interventions identified during the priority setting process. It is intended to achieve two major objectives: assess disease burden and UHC needs at the facility and catchment area level (and other subnational levels) and compare these projections to current service delivery needs and to determine estimates of the health system inputs needed.
This report includes a scoping review on the key conceptual, methodological, and data issues for developing a global index on healthcare innovation with the aim to identify what is needed to develop a global healthcare innovation index. The review proposes the development of an index to help governments focus attention on the performance of a country’s health system (including its strengths and weaknesses) in adopting and diffusing innovations as well as a country’s capacity to innovate.
This agenda proposes five key areas of action for a long-term international measurement agenda for innovation which include: 1) develop innovation metrics that can be linked to measures of economic performance; 2) invest in a high-quality and comprehensive statistical infrastructure; 3) promote metrics of innovation in the public sector and for public policy evaluation; 4) find new and interdisciplinary approaches to capture knowledge creation and flow; 5) and promote the measurement of innovation for social goals and social impacts of innovation.
This document calls for the prioritization of digital technologies as a way to improve the accessibility, affordability, and quality of primary health care. Includes actionable strategies for how to leverage digital technologies to inform, support, and build the capacity and improve the quality of primary health care.
This work summarizes groundbreaking research in social innovations in health through 23 case studies centered around the integrated people-centered health service framework. It aims to provide a deeper understanding of social innovation in health and provide key lessons and insights for health system strengthening, including the diversity of approaches social innovations have leveraged to address grassroots challenges.
This webpage mines an array of sources relevant to health innovation, including technical information related to advancing implementation research and innovative technologies.
This article calls for a functional framework for measuring national innovation efficiency and contributes a measurement tool based on a composite index, named the innovation efficacy index.
This paper describes the process and initial outcomes of the first National Health Assembly in Thailand with the aim of providing an innovative example of health policy making that could be adapted in other contexts.
This report introduces a framework for describing a national innovation ecology and provides guidance on the development of a national system of innovation metrics as it fits within the national innovation ecology, including push and pull factors and the public policy environment.
The accelerator discussion frames present the central role of 7 different accelerators in driving progress toward the health-related SDGs, opportunities and bottlenecks to closer coordination, engagement with relevant organizations, and initial frameworks for joint action. The accelerators identify collective actions at the global, regional, and country level.
This white paper offers guidance on how to develop a context-specific innovation system in an organization with a focus on improving health care delivery.
This white paper outlines the Institute for Healthcare Improvement’s Framework for spread that includes lessons about the most effective ways for organizations to prepare for spread, establish an aim for spread, and develop, execute, and refine a spread plan. It concludes with real-world examples of how different organizations have used the Framework for Spread to spread improvements in healthcare and improve outcomes such as improvements in access to care.
The IHI Open School is an online learning platform that provides users with essential training and tools for healthcare improvement in an online educational community.
Exemplars in Global Health aims to help public health decision-makers around the world identify and analyze countries that have made extraordinary progress in important health outcomes and disseminate the key takeaways. The lessons and topics contained in this growing list of Exemplar narratives will be a resource to leaders committed to improving health and achieving success in their countries, including via Epidemic Preparedness and Response. Users can learn more about Epidemic Preparedness and Response on the Exemplars in Global Health webpage.
"The new SCORE for Health Data Technical Package forms the cornerstone of WHO’s efforts to strengthen health information systems worldwide, and countries’ capacity to generate, analyse and use health data (i.e. health status and health intervention). The package is published during one of the most data-strained public health crisis responses ever – that of the COVID-19 pandemic2 – which is placing a huge burden on already overstretched health and health-related data systems worldwide. The SCORE for Health Data Technical Package can guide countries to take action by providing a one-stop shop for best technical practices that strengthen health information systems, using universally accepted standards and tools."
Here, the USAID Applying Science to Strengthen and Improve Systems (ASSIST) provides a curated collection of quality improvement resources from the USAID ASSIST Project. Since 2012, the USAID ASSIST Project has worked in over 40 countries, building the capacity of service delivery organizations and implementing partners to improve the effectiveness, efficiency, client-centeredness, safety, accessibility, and equity of the health and social services provided. These resources aim to equip service delivery organizations and implementing partners with tools to improve the quality of care in their context.
"This brief outlines the meaning of health system research capacity, the particular needs for such research capacity in crisis-affected settings, and key lessons for future policy, building on the broad experience of the ReBUILD Consortium and tacit knowledge of the ReBUILD partnership as well as wider literature."
"This timely and authoritative book offers an important summary of the current developments in health system performance comparison. It summarizes the current efforts to compare systems, and identifies and explores the practical and conceptual challenges that arise. It discusses data and methodological challenges, as well as broader issues such as the interface between evidence and practice. The book outlines the priorities for future work on performance comparison, in the development of data sources and measurement instruments, analytic methodology, and assessment of evidence on performance. It concludes by presenting the key lessons and future priorities, and thus offers a rich source of material for policy-makers, their analytic advisors, international agencies, academics and students of health systems."
"The toolkit attempts to do two things. Firstly, it highlights the barriers and biases that exist to learning in low-and middle-income country (LMIC) contexts by high income country (HIC) healthcare professionals and proposes strategies to overcome them. Secondly, it sets out how healthcare professionals in LMICs can not only work in partnership with counterparts in HICs but can become equal knowledge brokers." It is intended to be used by health care professionals working in health partnerships to better identify, document and share innovations in their work in LMIC settings.
"The purpose of this document is to outline a concise, step-by-step process for developing a scaling up strategy...It is hoped that the availability of this guide will encourage broader attention to systematic planning once pilot innovations have been successfully tested... It is intended for programme managers, researchers and technical support agencies who are seeking to scale up health service innovations that have been tested in pilot projects or other field tests and proven successful."
This article presents a summary of findings from the Harvard Medical School Program in Global Primary Care and Social Change, in partnership with Results for Development and the World Economic Forum's multistakeholder convening on Primary Care 2030. Here, the article presents a summary of the convening’s proceedings, with specific recommendations for strengthening primary health care systems within the domains of workforce innovation and strengthening; impactful use of data and technology; private sector engagement; and innovative financing mechanisms.
"The Paper Series on Capacity and Capacity Strengthening shares insights gleaned from a subset of the literature examined by the Self-Reliance Learning Agenda (SRLA) landscape analysis, with the aim of prompting further discussion. It notes that capacity and capacity strengthening are complex and contested terms, with practical implications for how development practitioners approach capacity strengthening with local partners."
"The Institute for Healthcare Improvement developed the Breakthrough Series to help health care organizations make "breakthrough" improvements in quality while reducing costs. The driving vision behind the Breakthrough Series is this: sound science exists on the basis of which the costs and outcomes of current health care practices can be greatly improved, but much of this science lies fallow and unused in daily work. There is a gap between what we know and what we do. The Breakthrough Series is designed to help organizations close that gap by creating a structure in which interested organizations can easily learn from each other and from recognized experts in topic areas where they want to make improvements."
"This report found that health research strategies play a key role in combining the diverse interventions to strengthen specific health research system functions into an overall system. Good practices in research systems strengthening were identified as health ministry involvement in and sustained political commitment to the comprehensive research strategy, and, where appropriate, integration of the health research system into the wider health system. Policy considerations include actions to ensure a contextual analysis to inform a comprehensive strategy; stakeholder engagement, including in priority-setting; monitoring and evaluation tools focused on system objectives; and partnerships."
"The Cluster Approach is a way of organizing coordination and cooperation among humanitarian actors to facilitate joint strategic planning. At country level, it: establishes a clear system of leadership and accountability for international response in each sector, under the overall leadership of the humanitarian coordinator; and provides a framework for effective partnerships among international and national humanitarian actors in each sector."
"A Roadmap for Systematic Priority Setting and Health Technology Assessment (HTA) serves as a practical guide for policy action in LMICs to successfully implement HTA and paves a road to a journey to sustainable UHC and self-reliance. Developed by Management Sciences for Health (MSH) and the USAID Medicines, Technologies, and Pharmaceutical Services (MTaPS) Program, with contributions from global experts in this field, this roadmap will help countries institutionalize their mechanisms, processes, and institutions to better use evidence and data to inform their resource allocation decisions."
"Health Priority Setting: A Practitioner’s Handbook provides practical guidance for low-and middle-income countries on how to use data and evidence when allocating resources in the health sector to help achieve their health priorities. Co-produced by the JLN’s Efficiency collaborative, this handbook packages the experiences and expertise from 11 JLN member countries, including Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Ghana, India, Indonesia, Kenya, Malaysia, Mongolia, Nigeria, the Philippines, and Vietnam."
"This paper proposes a framework for tracking country and global progress towards UHC; its aim is to inform and guide these discussions and assessment of both aggregate and equitable coverage of essential health services as well as financial protection...This paper was written on the basis of consultations and discussions with country representatives, technical experts and global health and development partners, including an online consultation based on a draft paper."
"The OneHealth Tool is a software tool designed to inform national strategic health planning in low- and middle-income countries. While many costing tools take a narrow disease-specific approach, the OneHealth Tool attempts to link strategic objectives and targets of disease control and prevention programmes to the required investments in health systems. The tool provides planners with a single framework for scenario analysis, costing, health impact analysis, budgeting and financing of strategies for all major diseases and health system components. It is thus primarily intended to inform sector wide national strategic health plans and policies."
This five priorities outlined in this article provide a framework to help guide the approach to the renewal of health and health care systems beyond the COVID-19 crisis. Priorities include: 1) Step change on inequalities and population health; 2_ lasting reform for social care; 3) Putting the workforce at centre stage; 4) Embedding and accelerating digital change; and 5) Reshaping the relationship between communities and public services. The authors draw on existing evidence and experience as well as early lessons from the pandemic to shape the priorities, and actions that could be taken to realize these priorities.
"The UHC Data Portal aims to provide a single interface to get an overview of the state of UHC commitments in every country and access UHC and Health System data sets and data visualizations from SDG official statistics and UHC2030 partners."
"The Data Impact Program partners with governments to enable them to use data to improve public health by prioritizing health issues and identifying populations in need, allocating financial and human resources, enacting laws and regulations, and establishing programs and services. The Data to Policy training course builds capacity among government health staff on using data to advance a policy agenda and support specific policy priorities."
"The GHS Index is the first comprehensive assessment of global health security capabilities in 195 countries...The GHS Index is intended to be a key resource in the face of increasing risks of high-consequence and globally catastrophic biological events and in light of major gaps in international financing for preparedness...The GHS Index seeks to illuminate preparedness and capacity gaps to increase both political will and financing to fill them at the national and international levels."
"Prevent Epidemics is a project of Resolve To Save Lives, an initiative of Vital Strategies. We are helping the world prevent the next disease outbreak by catalyzing country action to find, stop and prevent new disease threats, with a current focus on COVID-19."
SORMAS (Surveillance Outbreak Response Management and Analysis System) is an open source mobile eHealth System that processes disease control and outbreak management procedures in addition to surveillance and early detection of outbreaks through real-time digital surveillance including peripheral health care facilities and laboratories.
"OpenWHO is WHO’s new interactive, web-based, knowledge-transfer platform offering online courses to improve the response to health emergencies. OpenWHO enables the Organization and its key partners to transfer life-saving knowledge to large numbers of frontline responders."
"Building on UHC2030’s discussion paper on health emergencies and UHC, the Health Data Collaborative (HDC) proposes three specific issues for data and HIS that are required for more resilient and responsive health systems: 1) Strong data governance; 2) Community partnerships to address inequities; 3) Increasing trust in data."
"The objective of this paper is to present the HEMF, which was specifically designed to measure the direct and indirect effects of SDOH to support improved statistical modelling and measurement of health equity. The Health Equity Measurement Framework (HEMF) addresses these gaps by providing a more encompassing view of the multitude of SDOH and drivers of health service utilisation and by guiding quantitative analysis for public health surveillance and policy development."
"The IHR Costing Tool helps users generate and review cost estimates to support practical planning for sustainable capacity development to prevent, detect, and respond to public health threats, as defined by the International Health Regulations (IHR). This tool provides a framework to calculate costs for implementing and enhancing IHR core capacities. Costs are estimated by applying country-specific user input data to cost calculations developed using best practices for achieving the technical standards specified in the Joint External Evaluation Tool (JEE)."