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Monitoring, surveillance, and investigation of health threats (advancing the right to health: the vital role of law) WHO, 2017

This report provides an overview of the different types of surveillance strategies that make up a well-functioning public health system and describes how public health law can establish and maintain these systems. This report is a chapter within the larger report on Advancing the right to health: the vital role of law.
Tags: Surveillance

Report on Global Surveillance of Epidemic-prone Infectious diseases WHO, 2000

This report focuses on the analysis and interpretation of data collected by the WHO on the surveillance of nine infectious epidemic-prone diseases, the strengths and weaknesses of the data, and how the data can be used and interpreted. The report also details common surveillance methods and the clinical features and other characteristics of the diseases that are important for surveillance.
Tags: Surveillance

Communicable disease surveillance and response systems: guide to monitoring and evaluating WHO, 2006

This guide can assist countries in formulating and implementing monitoring and evaluation strategies for communicable diseases surveillance and response systems. It comprises an overview of key concepts for monitoring and evaluation, the target components of the surveillance and response system, practical steps in implementing monitoring and evaluation and the identification of relevant indicators, and a list of indicators for adaptation at the country level.
Tags: Surveillance

WHO webpage on emergency preparedness, response WHO

This webpage provides information (with links to relevant tools and resources) related to emergency preparedness and response systems. The website guides users through key topics including alert and response operations, disease outbreaks, biorisk reduction. Additionally, it provides users with information on current and past disease outbreaks, with links to relevant outbreak communication guidelines and best practices.
Tags: Surveillance

Health emergency interim guidelines: a WHO guideline development framework and toolkit WHO, 2017

This document provides an overarching framework to standardize the development of WHO guidelines in the context of public health emergencies. The framework includes a development pathway (i.e. methods and procedures) and a toolkit to enable transparent and efficient processes.
Tags: Surveillance

World Health Organization Joint External Evaluation Tool: International Health Regulations (2005) WHO, 2016

This tool can help countries assess their capacity to detect and rapidly respond to public health threats, facilitate a transparent multi-partner response to identifying the most urgent health needs in the health security system, and prioritize opportunities for preparedness, response, and action. It is intended to be used through a joint external evaluation process to measure country-specific status and progress in achieving the targets of effective surveillance and response.
Tags: Surveillance

WHO Recommended Surveillance Standards. Second edition WHO and UNAIDS, 1999

The purpose of this manual is to collate WHO recommended standards for the surveillance of communicable diseases to serve as a point of reference for effective communicable disease surveillance. It includes key elements and contact information for all communicable diseases/syndromes associated with current WHO control programmes and an overview of the methods for coordinating a national plan for communicable disease surveillance.
Tags: Surveillance

WHO International Health Regulations WHO, 2005

The IHR is a set of global regulations for the control of the international spread of disease set forth by the World Health Organization. The IHR requires countries to meet a number of “core capacity requirements” for surveillance response at local, intermediate, and national levels. Users can directly access the core capacity requirements for surveillance and response at each level in Annex 1.A of the IHR.
Tags: Surveillance

Priority Medicines for Europe and the World 2013 Update: Approaches to priority setting WHO, 2013

This chapter reviews the various approaches which have been used to set priorities for health research (at the national and international level) and details the rationale for the different methods used to design the conceptual framework for the priority medicines project.
Tags: Priority setting

Priority medicines for Europe and the World WHO, 2013

The objective of the original Priority Medicines Report (2004) was to prepare a public-health based medicines development agenda to advance the development of diagnostics and medicines for certain disease areas. The latest report identifies several existing and new gaps in pharmaceutical development and proposes suggestions for policy and research agendas to close these gaps.
Tags: Priority setting

Strategizing national health in the 21st century: a handbook. Chapter 3: Situation analysis of the health sector WHO, 2016

“This chapter aims to elaborate on a participatory, inclusive health sector situation analysis methodology to address that simple but very basic need of obtaining a realistic snapshot of the strengths and weaknesses of a country’s health system, as well as a more profound understanding of the reasons behind those strengths and weaknesses, so as to better enable a viable alternative (or successful scale-up).”
Tags: Priority setting

Strategizing national health in the 21st century: a handbook. Chapter 4: Priority-setting for national health policies, strategies and plans WHO, 2016

“This chapter elaborates various criteria and approaches for priority-setting. It closes with some specifics of the priority- setting exercise in particular contexts such as the decentralized and highly centralized setting, fragile states, and an aid-dependent environment.”
Tags: Priority setting

Priority-Setting in Health: Building institutions for smarter public spending Center for Global Development, 2012

“In this report, the Center for Global Development’s Priority Setting Institutions for Health Working Group has identified core features of priority-setting processes and institutions worldwide, recommending direct substantive support for creating fair and evidence-based national and global health technology assessment systems that will be applicable in any kind of health system.” It is intended to provide organizations with actionable recommendations for building smart and ethical decision-making systems for priority setting.
Tags: Priority setting

Disease Control Priorities Series (9 volumes) Third Edition World Bank, 2015-2018

This series, managed by the University of Washington’s Department of Global and the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, provides a periodic review (9 volumes) of the most cost-effective ways to address the burden of disease in low-resource areas. It includes a total of 21 essential packages with a mix of intersectoral policies and health sector interventions.
Tags: Priority setting

Universal Health Coverage Monitoring & Planning Tool Partners in Health, 2018

This tool was designed to assist countries with the planning and implementation of health interventions identified during the priority setting process. It is intended to achieve two major objectives: assess disease burden and UHC needs at the facility and catchment area level (and other subnational levels) and compare these projections to current service delivery needs and to determine estimates of the health system inputs needed.
Tags: Priority setting

Developing a Global Healthcare Innovation Index Policy Innovation Research Unit, 2017

This report includes a scoping review on the key conceptual, methodological, and data issues for developing a global index on healthcare innovation with the aim to identify what is needed to develop a global healthcare innovation index. The review proposes the development of an index to help governments focus attention on the performance of a country’s health system (including its strengths and weaknesses) in adopting and diffusing innovations as well as a country’s capacity to innovate.
Tags: Innovation and learning

Towards a measurement agenda for innovation The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, 2010

This agenda proposes five key areas of action for a long-term international measurement agenda for innovation which include: 1) develop innovation metrics that can be linked to measures of economic performance; 2) invest in a high-quality and comprehensive statistical infrastructure; 3) promote metrics of innovation in the public sector and for public policy evaluation; 4) find new and interdisciplinary approaches to capture knowledge creation and flow; 5) and promote the measurement of innovation for social goals and social impacts of innovation.
Tags: Innovation and learning

Technical Series on Primary Health Care: Digital technologies shaping the future of PHC WHO, 2018

This document calls for the prioritization of digital technologies as a way to improve the accessibility, affordability, and quality of primary health care. Includes actionable strategies for how to leverage digital technologies to inform, support, and build the capacity and improve the quality of primary health care.
Tags: Innovation and learning

Social innovation in health: case studies and lessons learned from LMICs WHO, 2017

This work summarizes groundbreaking research in social innovations in health through 23 case studies centered around the integrated people-centered health service framework. It aims to provide a deeper understanding of social innovation in health and provide key lessons and insights for health system strengthening, including the diversity of approaches social innovations have leveraged to address grassroots challenges.
Tags: Innovation and learning

WHO health topics: Innovation WHO

This webpage mines an array of sources relevant to health innovation, including technical information related to advancing implementation research and innovative technologies.
Tags: Innovation and learning

Towards a functional framework for measuring national innovation efficacy Mahroum and Al-Saleh, 2013

This article calls for a functional framework for measuring national innovation efficiency and contributes a measurement tool based on a composite index, named the innovation efficacy index.
Tags: Innovation and learning

Innovation and participation for health public policy: the first National Health Assembly in Thailand Rasanathan et al., 2012

This paper describes the process and initial outcomes of the first National Health Assembly in Thailand with the aim of providing an innovative example of health policy making that could be adapted in other contexts.
Tags: Innovation and learning

Measuring innovation for national prosperity Center for Accelerating Innovation, 2004

This report introduces a framework for describing a national innovation ecology and provides guidance on the development of a national system of innovation metrics as it fits within the national innovation ecology, including push and pull factors and the public policy environment.
Tags: Innovation and learning

Accelerator discussion frames WHO, 2019

The accelerator discussion frames present the central role of 7 different accelerators in driving progress toward the health-related SDGs, opportunities and bottlenecks to closer coordination, engagement with relevant organizations, and initial frameworks for joint action. The accelerators identify collective actions at the global, regional, and country level.
Tags: Innovation and learning

IHI Innovation System Institute for Healthcare Improvement, 2018

This white paper offers guidance on how to develop a context-specific innovation system in an organization with a focus on improving health care delivery.
Tags: Innovation and learning

A Framework for Spread: From Local Improvements to System-Wide Change Institute for Healthcare Improvement, 2006

This white paper outlines the Institute for Healthcare Improvement’s Framework for spread that includes lessons about the most effective ways for organizations to prepare for spread, establish an aim for spread, and develop, execute, and refine a spread plan. It concludes with real-world examples of how different organizations have used the Framework for Spread to spread improvements in healthcare and improve outcomes such as improvements in access to care.
Tags: Innovation and learning

IHI Open School

The IHI Open School is an online learning platform that provides users with essential training and tools for healthcare improvement in an online educational community.
Tags: Innovation and learning

PHCPI is a partnership dedicated to transforming the global state of primary health care, beginning with better measurement. While the content on this website represents the position of the partnership a whole, it does not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of any partner organization.


  1.  Indicator 3.d.1: International Health Regulations (IHR) capacity and health emergency preparedness.
  2. World Health Organization. Joint External Evaluation Tool. 2005;
  3. World Health Organization. International Health Regulations (2005), Third Edition. World Health Organization; 2016.
  4. World Health Organization. Primary Health Care Transforming Vision into Action: Operational Framework. World Health Organization; 2018.
  5. Oliveira T, Barrenho E, Autio A, Barlo J. Developing a Global Healthcare Innovation Index. Policy Innovation Research Unit; 2017.
  6. OECD. Towards a Measurement agenda  for Innovation. OECD; 2010.